The history of the Optometry Library and the College are so intertwined one can not be mentioned without the other for without the college there would be no library. So when you read this history you will see a brief history of the college along with the library.
“In the 1930’s and 1940’s the state of Texas, the Southwest and the Mid Southwestern states were in desperate need of optometrists. There was not a teaching facility within these states, so those interested in becoming an optometrist had to travel to the closest schools which were located in Illinois, California, or Tennessee. The University of Houston was approached by the Texas Optometric Association to develop an optometry program.” (12) So the story begins:
“In the early and middle 1940’s, the idea of creating a University-affiliated college of Optometry was born. At that time an appropriate committee was appointed by Texas Optometric Association (TOA) to investigate the feasibility and the need of such an institution. Conferences were then held with some of the leading educational institutions in Texas and considerable encouragement was given by them. However, the oncoming large post-war enrollments were about to over-run the campuses of most educational institutions and, in view of this, it was deemed unwise to consider any new departments or divisions for teaching optometry or other professional pursuits. Lying dormant for a short time, it was at the suggestion of Dr. Les Cheatham, of Houston, that the idea be revived and contact be made with the University of Houston regarding it. An attentive ear was given the group appointed by TOA by the then-president of U of H, Dr. W.W. Kemmerer. It became a challenge to him and upon great preparation in conjunction with T.O.A., the proposal was presented to the University Board of Regents. They, too, lent their approval and from that point, it was an assured fact that the College of Optometry could come into existence.” (1)
The College of Optometry’s humble beginning started on September 10, 1952. At the inauguration, University of Houston President W.W. Kemmerer observed that, “This is a day which will never occur again. For this is the first day that we have actually observed the beginning of this school. We at the University of Houston are very proud and very humble of the great things which will come from this school.” (6) Dr. Charles R. Stewart from Ohio State University served as our first dean. He established a five-year curriculum with students receiving an O.D. degree.
The College offered two programs: a Pre-Optometry program (two-year preparatory program in the College of Arts and Sciences) and an Optometry program (three year professional program). Also, the College offered two degrees: a Bachelor of Science (an academic degree) and a Doctor of Optometry (a professional degree requisite to the practice of optometry).
“Prior to the beginning of the 1957-58 academic, it was decided that in order for a student to earn a doctorate degree (O.D. degree), a sixth year was needed. Thus, the program was modified so that a student first entering the professional degree program in September 1957 would earn a Certificate in Optometry in May of 1960 after three years. A student who graduated with a certificate could take the state boards and enter practice if desired. However, students wanting to earn the O.D. degree had to return for an additional year and would be awarded their doctorate in May of 1961. This four year professional program leading to the O.D. degree was unprecedented. All other optometry schools in this country had a three year professional program with private institutions awarding the O.D. degree and state supported institutions awarding either a B.S. or M.S. in optometry. The last class having the option of going into practice with a Certificate in Optometry after three years or with an O.D. after four years began in September of 1965. After that all schools adopted a four year program leading to the O.D. degree. Thus the class that graduated in May of 1970 was the first that was required to attend the full four years. It was interesting to note that between 1957 and 1969, twenty-five students who had completed the three year professional program at state supported institutions such as The Ohio State University, Indiana University, and The University of California at Berkeley transferred to Houston for a fourth year so that they might receive the O.D. degree.” (12 )
The College was housed in the Science Building along with the Natural Sciences department. The semester began with four faculty members teaching the basics: Dr. Sara E Huggins (anatomy), Dr. Ronald Kroeger (physiology), H.M. North (physics), Ruby Percival (bacteriology). (11) Dr. Stewart brought with him from Ohio State Dr. Vern Hammond, an optometrist. He was the first optometrist to teach classes here. (12)
University of Houston, 1952 (11)
Meager Beginnings for the Library
The optometry library such as it was, was located in the new main library -- the M.D. Anderson Memorial Library. Each department on campus had a “library alcove” housing the books and periodicals for that particular department. The picture below shows what the library looked like in 1952. From a phone interview in July 2004 with Dr. Stewart, he stated that “in 1952 we had to start from scratch; we had no books and a limited budget to work with.” (10) Dr. Stewart named the library as “Memorial Library of Visual Science”. (5) Since the library was lacking in all aspects of a collection, Dr. Stewart put out a call to Texas optometrists to donate books and periodicals to the library to help furbish the collection. With these donations it was hoped that the library would soon be historically complete and as well as fully stocked with the most up-to-date information on vision. (3) By 1953, the optometry library contained approximately 150 volumes and had subscriptions to some 30 periodicals, and the optometry students also had access to the 1000 periodicals subscribed to by the Main Library. (3)
Library Alcove (13)
As time progressed, the college increased its number of students and faculty. Things were running quite well. In 1961, Dr. Stewart decided it was time to leave the college and open a private practice in Waco. Dr. Chester H. Pheiffer, a faculty member at the college, became the new dean in September of 1961. Dean Pheiffer was instrumental in the college’s two great moves, the first to the Naval Reserve Armory on campus in 1964 and then to the newly built college facility in 1977.
Soon, the highly successful college had outgrown its location in the Science Building, and by the fall of 1964, moved to the Naval Reserve Armory on campus. The University of Houston renovated the building at a cost of $140,000. At that time no money was available to build a new facility for the college. This newly renovated facility was 16,650 square feet which almost doubled its present location. (4) Since the building was designed with a ship-type floor plan the college was affectionately known as the “USS Optometry.” (2) The library was then located next to the Dean’s office down a long dark hall. This is the first time the library actually had a room of its own. This was the beginning of the optometry library with its own stacks, seating area, but no librarian.
Naval Reserve Armory aka “ USS Optometry”
It was situated in a room next to the Dean’s Office. Indeed, it was at the end of a long corridor that extended the full length of the front two-story facade into which faculty offices opened.
(4) Dr. Pheiffer in the library at the Naval Reserve Armory, 1970.
By the fall of 1967, the college received a Health Professions Educational Assistance Basic Improvement Grant. Money from that grant provided funds for two part-time positions, a Librarian and an Assistant Librarian to be hired for the Reading Room. Linda Samuels became the Director of the Optometry Library. “This resulted in the “Reading Room” being upgraded to “College Library,” with special pride being manifested in its Visual Science Collection.” (2) Even though the librarian was part-time, the library had improved on its service to the faculty and students.
Beginning in 1969, students’ study space in the Optometry Library had been increased from twelve to twenty student stations by adding new carrels, large library tables, and upholstered chairs. Also, three sections of new shelving, a display rack and a card catalog were added. A messenger service had been established between the Optometry Library and the Main Library. Medlars Service, a computerized bibliographic search procedure was being utilized by the faculty.” (2) Things were looking up! But, in order for the college to continue its rise to one of the best optometric teaching facilities in the nation, more space for teaching, research, faculty offices, classrooms, and most importantly, a new clinic was sorely needed.
In April of 1969, Dean Pheiffer reported to the T.O.A. that the only avenue of growth open to the College in terms of producing its share of optometrists needed in the United States was to increase its facilities for educating doctors. (2) A committee was appointed by then President Hoffman to prepare the plans. Planning came to a halt in 1970, when the new Vice President and Dean of Academic Affairs came into office. He felt that other areas on campus were in greater need and the money that had been encumbered was to meet those needs. (2) So plans for a new optometric facility were put on hold. In early 1974, Federal money through the Health Professions Education Assistance Act became available for the construction of the new facility. The proposed facility would handle a class of 100 students and would cost an estimated $9.6 million dollars. The new college building would be located on a 26-acre tract on the corner of Wheeler and Calhoun. It would include some 135,946 gross square feet, compared to the 23,760 square feet currently utilized by 275 students, twenty-four full-time and seven part-time faculty and staff. The preliminary estimates for the structure itself would cost $6,762,500. (14) Construction began in the spring of 1975 to the delight of the college and its great supporters! Completion of the new facility was in the fall of 1976.
Meanwhile in 1975, back at the library, in the Naval Reserve building, the government of France was gracious enough to donate 250 French books in the areas of medical science, physiological optics, and vision science. Dean Pheiffer presented a plaque to Jacques Aaron, France’s Scientific and Cultural Attaché in appreciation for his part in procuring the publications for the Optometry Library. (2, 14) “Mrs. Linda Samuels, Director of the Optometry Library, indicated that these volumes would permit the UHCO library to become a resource for such publications--particularly for other colleges of Optometry, and for research personnel at the Texas Medical Center. Mr. Steven Salmon, University of Houston Director of Libraries, praised the growing strength of the Optometry Library collection and indicated that this expansion of the Research Collection would permit further growth as a national resource for researchers in optometry and related subjects.”(2)
Finally, the new building was completed. The College had its new home! The official dedication was on-- March 27, 1977 -- for the new $10 million facility. The May issue of the Texas Optometry reported the following:
“The first floor of the new building includes a generous reception area, Circular Vision Analysis Clinic, Vision Therapy Clinic, Contact Lens Clinic, Pathology Clinic and Optical Dispensary. Each area is designed to provide total vision health care and utilizes the most modern vision instrumentation. The second floor includes faculty offices, student lounge, library services, classrooms, and teaching laboratories. The classrooms provide amphitheater sitting and excellent audio-visual services. Faculty offices were designed to provide a pleasant atmosphere for faculty use. The third floor contains a large classroom, a seminar room, graduate student offices, research laboratories, and technical services required to support the teaching and research programs, including a computer center, machine shop, photography, and audio-visual center. Particular areas of ongoing research include single cell neurophysiology, animal psychophysics, corneal physiology, radiation effects on the eye, gross potential research and histology, including both light and electron microscopic studies.” (9)
The Optometry Library
The 5,000 sq. ft Optometry Library was located on the second floor near the elevators. The floor plan below showed the layout as it was in 1977. As you walk in the front door you find a circulation desk on the left staffed with great people. Directly in front of you is the periodical reading room. Turn right and you will find a large seating area with individual carrels and tables for students to use. If you turn left as you enter you will see a large stack area for our book/journal collection, conference room, audio-visual rooms, seminar rooms and a typing and photocopy room. The floor plan shows the immensity of the library. Even though the library had a great physical space it was still lacking in staff and financial support.
“The library is designed to provide open stack, audio-visual and seminar rooms, periodical room, and a large study area which allows the student a choice of arrangements for serious study.” (9)
During this time the branch libraries were under the administrative control of the main library. A professional librarian, Linda Morgan, was available at the optometry library for only half a day per week. So reference services were limited. Faculty members used the University of Texas Medical Center Library as well as the main library. The library had two other staff positions that provided routine circulation services too. One of those positions was held by Elma Lopez. In 1979, Becky Estrada came on board as the library supervisor from 1979 to 1996.
Becky was a great liaison for the library. She was well loved by the faculty, staff and students of the college and the main library too.
In 1978, Dr. Pheiffer, returned to teaching full time. An interim dean was chosen to replace him. Dr. Charles Stewart, our first dean, returned and served as our dean until a permanent one could be found. (15) In 1979, Dr. William R. Baldwin became the new dean. He hailed from the New England College of Optometry.
His new administration included Dr. Jerald Strickland who came from Pennsylvania College of Optometry. The two recognized the limitations the college was experiencing and decided it was time for a change.
In 1980, the college prepared a self study for the Council on Education of the American Optometric Association for accreditation. In this study they found that the library’s physical facilities were excellent and that there were adequate study carrels, group study rooms, typing rooms and copying facilities. But, it reported that the library’s holdings were limited and only had a few special learning resources materials available. The study suggested that increased funding and a full time librarian were needed. The report indicated that these conditions reflected the financial constraints that are part of a general university problem. (7)
The study showed that in 1977-78, the library collection had 3,491 bound volumes, 101 serial titles, 206 audio tapes, and 28 video tapes and films. During this time, the amount spent on library materials was $6,000 for books, $4,800 for Serials, $260 for binding, $23,000 for staff and $1300 for audiovisuals. (7) One can see that the financial funding for library materials was seriously lacking. Then by 1979-80, the library collection had increased to 3,648 bound volumes, 119 serial titles, 226 audio tapes and 55 video tapes and films. The amount spent on library materials for the year span was $11,800 for books, $5,200 for serials, $1,800 for binding, $26,200 for staff and $3,800 for audiovisuals. (7) This was a gradual improvement in funding.
The college understood the need for increasing the library materials budget. The college agreed to provide the main library with money for serials, books and media acquisitions. As suggested by the study, approximately $10,000 per year was budgeted by the college to lend support. These funds were made available from optometry practitioner licensure fees (these are restricted to library and scholarship use). This additional money helped the library to acquire the materials needed to make it a recognized research library.
Another proposal was that a position for a full time Director of Learning Resources be created. A search committee consisting of faculty and administrative members from optometry and the main library began a search for an experienced librarian with experience in a science or health professional library and expertise in developing non-printed learning resources materials. (7)
In 1980, Suzanne Ferimer was hired as the Director of Learning Resources. She came from University of Kentucky Medical Center Library where she was their Reference and Interlibrary Loan Librarian. She was certified by Medical Library Association and has experience working in health sciences libraries.
With the addition of Ms. Ferimer, the library soon began to improve in the kind of services being provided to its students, faculty and staff. In 1984, another college self study was performed for the Council on Education of the American Optometric Association. This study indicated that the library had made great improvements in its collection and in the services it provided to faculty, students and staff and that this was the direct result of hiring a full time librarian. The study also indicated that the level of service the library provided to its faculty was totally different from that of a general academic library. Faculty doing research, teaching classes, and those involved in patient care did not have the time to walk over to the main library to do research or acquire library materials. Nor did they have the time for tedious literature searches, or time to provide in depth instruction to individuals and classes on writing or locate and photocopy articles in the library. All of these services were provided by a library staff that was extremely knowledgeable in what was available and how to acquire it. As stated in the study, “In a health sciences library all of the services are provided by library staff and at the UHCO Library they are”. (8)
In addition, the study indicated that the financial support the library received had improved immensely with both the College and the main library providing funding. The College budgeted annually $11,000 or more and the main library tripled theirs from $7,000 to $21,000 for the purchase of books, journals and audio-visual materials. (8) This has allowed the collection to strengthen.
In reference to the collection itself, the study found that in order for the library to reach the level of an outstanding vision library a “collection development policy” was needed. The College then formed a Collection Development Project team. The first step was to inventory the entire collection to get an idea of what was missing and what needed to be weeded from the collection. The second step was to survey the faculty to find out what weaknesses the collection had and what recommendations they had for improvement. Then a collection development policy was written which gave guidance for future development of the collection. Next several lists were reviewed such as “Opening Day Book Collection” from the Association of Vision Science Librarians and “Books Relevant to Ophthalmology” from the Brandon Hill Small Medical Library List to see how well the collection was progressing. Acquisitions from these lists, requests from the faculty and staff, or books and journals found in publishers’ notices were ordered according to the criteria of the Collection Development Policy. The librarian also monitored the acquisition lists from other optometry and health sciences libraries to keep the collection up-to-date. (8) The library was now on the right track. With this new collection development policy the library collection had increased its holdings in the following subjects: optometry, ophthalmology, vision science, psychophysics, optics, vision rehabilitation, neuroscience, ocular pharmacology, psychology, general medicine, pediatrics education and business related materials making this a very versatile medical collection.
Electronically, the study showed that the library offered free online searching of journal literature to faculty and students and had access to over 300 databases through DIALOG, BRS, SDC, and the National Library of Medicine. It indicated that a number of different microcomputers were available for students and faculty to use. Also, that the library had a large audiovisual collection that was highly used by the faculty and students in their research, class instruction, and grand rounds cases. All of the media could be viewed in one of the two fully equipped audio-visual rooms in the library. (8)
Also, a Current Awareness Program was set up for the faculty, adjunct faculty at external sites, and graduate students. This service allowed for them to select the table of contents from five journals we subscribed to and select two articles for the library to photocopy for them. This enabled them to keep abreast of current literature. This program has since been revised to just faculty and residents because of the popularity of the program.
The University of Houston Libraries was one of the first large university libraries to automate in the 1970’s. The library made a gradual change from manual to CLSI (an automated circulation system) in 1974; in the 1980’s changing over to GEAC (an on-line catalog and circulation system) for the university system which included the Main Library, Art/Architecture, Music, Pharmacy, Victoria, Downtown, Law and Clear Lake libraries. A large portion of the summer of 1984 was devoted to the GEAC linking project. All books and journals in the collection were given a unique barcode and linked to a Library of Congress bibliographic record. By the end of August, 90% of the optometry’s collection had been linked, approximately 2,928 monographic records. Once the items were entered in the system, a cataloging record was available with the system’s holdings attached to each record. Then you could see which library in the consortium owned a book and if it was checked out.
The College, as well as the library, has gone through some changes over the years. Dr. Baldwin retired and Dr. Strickland became the interim dean from September 1991 through May 1992. In May of 1992, he accepted the position as dean of the College of Optometry. Dr. Strickland, a mover and shaker, was and is a great supporter of the library.
In 1993, the library and college had the distinction of honoring two men who were great supporters of the optometric profession and the college. April of 1993, the library was renamed The Weston A. Pettey Library after the former editor of the Texas Optometry Association Journal, and author of the book “Optometry in Texas”, a history of the optometric profession in Texas. A reception was given in honor of Dr. Pettey in 1999. His family attended the party and his great grand daughter, Gena, donated two children’s books to the library which we have on permanent reserve. Copies of his book were available and an autograph signing was held. Dr. Charles Stewart, former dean, Dana Rooks, UH Libraries dean, and Dr. Strickland addressed those attending.
Weston A. Pettey
In September of 1993, the college was renamed “J. Davis Armistead Building”. Dr. Armistead, a crusader for an optometric college in Texas, was instrumental in the construction of the new building. There was a reception with the president of the university, members of the Board of Regents and Dr. Armistead’s lovely wife, Cora, in attendance.
In 1995/96, Dr. Strickland met with Robin Downes, then UH Libraries director, and discussed plans for renovating the library. The Optometry Library underwent a $250,000 facelift with funds provided by the University of Houston Libraries. Towards the end of 1996, Dana Rooks became dean of the UH Libraries when Mr. Downes retired.
The extensive renovation provided 10 group study rooms, a computer lab, two audiovisual rooms, a large conference room, an expanded photocopy facility, a current journals reading room and increased our shelving space by twenty percent.
After the renovation, the Library’s computer lab held 36 PC’s, two laser printers, and a scanner. All of the computers were networked providing word processing, e-mail, and Internet access. Students were able to access class assignments through the College’s Intranet. Also, students and faculty were able to use their personal computer via Ethernet connections to the UHCO network throughout the Library. In 2003, the library became wireless. The main library has provided us with five laptop computers with wireless capabilities.
One of the biggest changes for the library, as we have seen in the 1990’s, is the Internet. Our faculty, staff, and students now have free access to the Internet on campus and are provided remote access through their e-mail accounts. They now have access to a multitude of library resources available through the University of Houston Libraries website from computers in homes, offices, and computer labs. They have access to several hundred databases and thousands of full text journals and books.
In the fall of 1996, our current journals reading room was named after the famed Dr. Irvin Borish; a former faculty member of the college, who is considered to be the “Father of Optometry.” Dr. Borish is also an accomplished artist. We have several of his paintings on display in the reading room. We also have an extensive collection of his awards and degrees displayed throughout the Library and his papers are archived with Special Collections. Dr. Borish continues to visit the college and library yearly.
In 1996, the Library Supervisor, Becky Estrada, had to retire because of health reasons. Becky passed away in 1999. She was and is greatly missed! A replacement was not found until February 1997. Pam Forbes transferred from the main library as the new library supervisor. Pam, a library veteran of 19 years, was in charge of the Reserves department there. Staffing included Janie Caballero, library assistant, one evening clerk, one weekend clerk and one computer lab monitor.
Pam Forbes, Suzanne Ferimer, & Janie Caballero
In 1997, a few changes were made: new shelving was built in the circulation area, stacks were rearranged, the collection was inventoried and entered in the circulation system, and subject indexes were created. In the summer of 1997, since the journal collection was the most frequently used part of the collection, it was decided that the collection needed to be reversed so the journals were at the beginning of the collection. The end panels and shelves were relabeled at this point.
In 1998, shelving space inside the circulation area was increased by removing the four large cabinets located on the inside wall and having shelving constructed in its place. This enabled the slide collection to be moved to the back wall of the staff area, therefore increasing needed growth space for this collection.
In the early 1990’s, the UH Libraries upgraded their circulation and cataloging system to Innovative Innerfaces or INNOPAC. Bibliographic records linked in the GEAC system were transferred to INNOPAC. As one would suspect there were problems associated with the linkage. In 1998, an inventory of the collection was done. We found that some of the books were on the incorrect bibliographic record, that some location changes were incorrectly reflected on the shelf list and in INNOPAC, and that some titles that were greensheeted for withdrawal some years back were not deleted from the system. We found that over the years there were 566 books missing from the collection.
In March 1999, a serial conversion project began which allowed all the journals to be listed in the circulation system. Also, in 1999, a barcoding project for self checkout began. The main library received a grant to purchase self check out machines for itself and the branch libraries. Barcodes had to be placed on the front cover of the each book and journal.
Our fourth year students are required to present a grand rounds paper to the faculty. These rounds are collected and bound each semester. To find a particular rounds paper one had to look through each volume with the year span of 1990-current year for a particular paper. An author/title/subject index was created for this collection. This has been a great help to anyone needing to find a rounds paper.
The longest on-going project in the Pettey Library is the indexing of our slide collection. Our faculty and students use individual slides from our slide collection in their presentations. To find a particular slide they had to look at the index of the slide, if the slide box had one, or just look at each slide until they found the one they needed. In 1999, Pam took on this project, but found there was a great need for someone with more optometric experience to do the indexing properly. In the summer of 2001, the library hired two optometry students to begin the indexing again. As of now, seventy-five percent of the collection has been indexed. This collection has over 10,000 slides on all types of ocular diseases and pathology. When completed we will have a subject index database that will indicate which slide sets have slides pertaining to the same subject or topic in question so they can be viewed at the same time.
The strength of the collection has been achieved through the continual and generous support of both the College and University Libraries. The materials budget for 1998/1999 was $73,617 with Library the providing $49,617 and the College providing $24,000. In 2003-2004, the materials budget of $99,327.66 has seen an increase with the Library providing $75,327.36 and the College providing $24,000. This has allowed for the purchase of any type of material as long as it fell within the Collection Development Policy.
Also, our students have access to materials not located in the Pettey Library from a variety of sources. The University of Houston Libraries has approximately two million volumes and 14,000 journal subscriptions available to our students. The Anderson Library has a good core collection for health sciences, education and psychology. The College of Pharmacy has a core collection that is extremely beneficial to our students needing pharmaceutical information. For materials not owned by the Libraries, our students have free inter-library loan access.
In addition, the University Libraries has contracted with one of the finest health science libraries in the world, the Houston Academy of Medicine/Texas Medical Center Library to provide full access to services for Optometry and Pharmacy faculty, staff and graduate students. Faculty and graduate students have access to and borrowing privileges from the libraries that make up the Houston Area Library Consortium (HARLiC). Any UHCO faculty, staff or student can visit any four year or two year public college or university in the State of Texas and borrow materials. This is done through the TexShare program funded by the Texas Legislature. At this point a number of private Texas colleges and universities are also joining the program. This is especially nice for our externs in Texas who can now use local libraries if the need arises.
The Pettey Library also belongs to the Association of Vision Science Librarians (AVSL). AVSL has an Internet reflector that provides access to various ophthalmic and optometric websites. The association is an international organization composed of professional librarians, or persons acting in that capacity, whose collections include the literature of vision. They are very cooperative about providing materials ASAP and may at times fax the information immediately or loan us materials our Inter-Library Loan department was unable to provide. AVSL librarians are also an aid to collection development by posting their new acquisitions lists and with Internet resources they have found.
In December 1999, Pam was asked to edit the eighth edition of the union list of the Association of Visual Science Librarians. With thirty libraries participating, it was the most comprehensive union list AVSL ever produced. The project was completed in February 2000. The project would not have been undertaken if not for the support of both the College of Optometry and the University Libraries, who both recognized the importance of such a project. In March of 2004, Pam began editing the ninth edition of the union list which is expected to be completed in 2005.
In 2003, Dr. Strickland became the interim Provost and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs. Dr. Earl Smith III, Dean of Graduate Studies, was chosen as the new dean of the College. Leadership changes, but the continual dedication and support the library has known over the years continues with great enthusiasm.
The Weston A. Pettey Library has seen many changes over the years. A newly renovated library; continual financial support from both the college and main library that enables us to have an excellent collection of serials and monographs consisting of optometry, ophthalmology, vision science, psychophysics, optics, vision rehabilitation, neuroscience, ocular pharmacology, psychology, general medicine, pediatrics education and business related materials; to having access to full text articles on a multitude of topics here and at the medical center library; and most importantly to have a library staff that cares! In all, the library has received outstanding support from both the University Libraries and the College of Optometry. This support has allowed it to become one of the finest vision science libraries in the country.